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This White Paper deals with the concept of automatic switching in plant engineering and then continues with a practical analysis so as to explain how the ATS units integrate with all the devices involved in the switching process.
This white paper explains how controllers can be used to optimise virtually any industrial process.
This white paper presents an overview of industrial automation systems and the role of malware and information security in this field. The topics discussed herein are of interest not only to industrial applications, but are also relevant for e.g. automation of municipal services.
The scope of the white paper is limited to considering the lower two layers of the automation pyramid and touching the third SCADA/DCS layer. The paper attempts to describe the field of information security in industrial automation from a generic point of view. Data and information in this paper, on which conclusions are based, are available in the public domain.
The chapters 1 and 2 provide an overview of information security in general and in industrial automation. Chapter 3 discusses the security of
communication between devices and systems in industrial automation, while chapter 4 focuses on the security of individual automation devices.
Wireless communications interfaces are briefly considered in chapter 5, followed by a summary of the paper in chapter 6.
This White Paper is divided into three main parts:
−− components used for wiring: this part gives a description of the components mentioned in this paper;
−− ABB SACE offer: this part offers a panorama of the connection terminals of ABB SACE circuit-breakers:
−− wiring cable–terminal-circuit-breaker: making use of userfriendly tables this part gives information about the cable/ bar connection to the ABB circuit-breakers (maximum cross-section in relation to the terminal, tightening according to the cable size, etc.).
Energy-Efficiency Policy Opportunities for Electric Motor-Driven Systems white paper
This paper presents the findings of the first global analysis of energy consumption in electric motor‐ driven systems (EMDS)1 and the options to reduce it. It assesses the energy currently used by EMDS and the potential for energy savings, examines market barriers to the adoption of energy‐efficient solutions, and reviews current policy settings and outcomes. The report then proposes a comprehensive package of policy recommendations to help governments tap the huge potential for energy savings in EDMS.
In two-wire 4-20mA control loops, we use 2-wire transmitters to convert various process signals representing flow,
speed, position, level, temperature, pressure, strain, pH, etc., to 4-20mA DC for the purpose of transmitting the signal over some distance with little or no loss of signal. This paper reviews the operation of this transmission standard and its advantages, in particular as it relates to two-wire transmitters and the associated 4-20mA current loop.
Rockwell Automation Examines Vital Role of Intelligent Motor Control Centers
This whitepaper discusses the options available to OEM machine builders to avoid unnecessary costs by using a remote connection to the electrical control equipment. This means that typical operations such as equipment maintenance programs, configuration changes or PLC programming can be handled directly from the OEM business premises or other remote locations.
This paper will look at the advantages of using USB, what isolation means, types of isolation, when and why USB connections should be isolated.
Socomec Sicon UPS in collaboration with Pentadyne
Background: A flywheel system is essentially a dynamic battery that stores energy mechanically in the form of kinetic energy by spinning a mass about an axis. Electrical input spins the flywheel rotor and keeps it spinning 24/7 until called upon to release the stored
energy through a generator, such as a reluctance motor generator. The amount of energy available and its duration is governed by the flywheel mass and speed.
“The concept of Green is a marketing invention”. This statement more or less embodies a widespread belief that marketing is solely capable of creating or inventing necessities which do not exist. So how can such an empty concept persist for so long, mobilising governments, manufacturers and consumers?
The aim of this analysis is to clarify the environmental impacts of high-availability architectures, illustrating the basic concepts.
Battery Management - Reducing battery costs
One of the most delicate components of a UPS, which certainly plays a crucial role in its overall reliability, is the accumulator battery. Today, the technology available enables its life to be prolonged and thus the total cost of ownership of a UPS to be reduced.
Maintenance as a tool to increase the electric power availability, reduce running costs and prevent damage to people and property
1. Introduction: Minimising losses, optimising cooling
2. Server cabinet installations in the computer centre: cold and warm aisles
2.1 Cold air coming from above
2.2 Cold air coming from below
3. Optimisation stage 1: Radial fans in the rear doors
4. Optimisation stage 2: Covering the cold aisle
5. Optimisation stage 3: Additionally closing the cold aisle front and rear
6. Optimisation stage 4: Water-cooled doors on the exit side of the servers
7. Optimisation stage 5: Water-cooled doors on the entry side of the servers
8. Optimisation stage 6: Closed cell with two AWHEs (LHX 20) at front and rear
9. Optimisation stage 7: Air-conditioning for safety only
With a universal cabinet concept one can understand the modular compatibility and cabinet accessories for rack mounting according to international standards (IEC). In contrast to simple construction for constrained standards, a global concept must offer a selection for users with specific configurations from of the modular assembly system.
These characteristics significantly influence the logistics, like the timely implementation of projects. The latest development of electronics in conjunction with stronger regulations regarding universal compatibility, places higher demands on the materials, the efficiency of the electronic and mechanical protection functions, and the thermal management, like the mechanical robustness regarding shock, vibration, and seismic applications.
In this white paper you will read about the trouble with harmonics in modern power systems. Readers will learn about the technical view of harmonics and solutions to compensate for and reduce harmonics. Read the key advantages of HMTs (harmonic-mitigating transformer) and other mitigating techniques.
This vital White Paper from Acromag provides in-depth discussion of the Modbus protocol, explains functions and illustrates key concepts.
Modbus devices communicate using a master-slave technique in which only one device (the master) can initiate transactions (called queries). The other devices (slaves) respond by supplying the requested data to the master, or by taking the action requested in the query. A slave is any peripheral device (I/O transducer, valve, network drive, or other measuring device) which processes information and sends its output to the master using Modbus. Acromag Series 900MB I/O Modules are slave devices, while a typical master device is a host computer running appropriate application software.
This white paper explores key issues to consider when selecting a UPS service offering and service provider. It also examines some of the top features to look for when evaluating UPS service plans, and discusses the importance of supplementing emergency assistance with preventive maintenance.